CONCLUSIONS: The failure of some obese subjects to lose weight while eating a diet they report as low in calories is due to an energy intake substantially higher than reported and an overestimation of physical activity, not to an abnormality in thermogenesis.
Some artificial sweeteners regulate adipocyte differentiation and metabolism through a sweet taste receptor-independent mechanism.
Significance: Absorbed artificial sweeteners may regulate aspects of adipose tissue biology.
Although weight loss can usually be achieved by restricting food intake, the majority of dieters regain weight over
the long-term. In the hypothalamus, hormonal signals from the gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other
peripheral sites are integrated to inﬂuence appetite and energy expenditure. Diet-induced weight loss is
accompanied by several physiological changes which encourage weight regain, including alterations in energy
expenditure, substrate metabolism and hormone pathways involved in appetite regulation, many of which persist
beyond the initial weight loss period. Safe effective long-term strategies to overcome these physiological changes
are needed to help facilitate maintenance of weight loss. The present review, which focuses on data from human
studies, begins with an outline of body weight regulation to provide the context for the su