- actual sprinting because doing something makes you better at it.
- Lifting because stronger muscles means more power output.
- Cardio/middle distance training to give you a training base or ability to train more (essentially just general conditioning).
how often can you train?
If you can train every day, do 2(lifting)/2(distance)/3(sprints). (or 2/1/3 if six days a week).
If twice a day, make it 3/3/5 and 1 more session of something you prefer.
If 3 days a week, just do three sessions of sprinting because splitting it up more will make it essentially pointless, you wont be doing enough of any one thing to make it effective. you can see great progress from just this and if this is all that you can manage then read the section on sprinting sessions and maybe tag on a 20 minute cardio run on the end or just more sprint sets.
For sprinting sessions, as far as I can tell you want three things: stronger muscles, better utilisation of your anaerobic energy systems and better form. intervals of hill sprints and 60-100 meter sprints will strengthen your muscles and improve your ability to utilise your anaerobic energy system. try something like 10 sets of 60 meter sprints with 1-2minutes rest. or 7 sets of 100m and 2min rest for the normal sprints and find maybe a 50m slight hill and do 10 sets up that with 1-2 minutes. A training partner and youtube videos will help you with form. (rest can be active or complete(a slow jog back to the start or standing still/slow walk)
For Lifting sessions, if you have experience in the gym do a specialised power program based around squats and power cleans and other leg/core stuff, if not do Starting Strength or Strong Lifts 5×5 or some other beginner routine. these sessions will simply make your muscles able to give you more output for any given action (you’ll get more power). info on SS and SL5x5 can be found in the program picker in the FAQ.
for cardio/conditioning, build up to a 6km(4miles) run, do it fairly quickly for you couch to 5k is a pretty simple and straight forward way of building up to a 6km run. this will give you some conditioning so you can train harder in your other sessions. there are more efficient/different ways than just running 6km’s but this is the simplest and they all essentially serve the same purpose of improving your cardio, lung capacity and muscular endurance. consider doing a different sport in place of this, soccer or swimming could probably fill this slot nicely.
What’s most important? sprints, conditioning, lifting. in that order, actually sprinting will give the best improvement and conditioning is pretty important also, lifting is a nice extra that if done properly will increase your power output and prevent injury, but its definitely least necessary.
Intensity advice, you cant go hard out every session especially if you plan on training everyday, pick three sessions a week where you are going to just GO HARD(choose based on spacing those session apart throughout the week and what you want to emphasize that week) and the others do enough to feel worked but not wrecked.
Warming up, always warm up regardless of the session with a general warm up (400-600m slow jog or something to get blood going in your legs). stretching can help, after your session as a warm down exercise.
how long to train in each session, for sprints or and conditioning session, including warm up and stretching at the end, probably about 50 minutes is about as much as you want and for lifting follow what SS/SL5x5 says. (if you only want to train 3 days a week, you can probably do more and train like an hour and 20 if you really want too)
Improving form, use YouTube to learn about the key things you want to do and focus on 1 to 2 thing each session and try to do those perfectly, be that keeping your head high, or keeping your knees high or not rotating your torso or pumping your arms or something else.
My background, I don’t have a lot of experience with land based sprints specifically but i have one coaching qualification in Swimming and am obtaining another for Kayaking (mostly sprint kayaking), so i know a little about training in general and there are a lot of similarities between sprint kayaking and normal sprinting. I have also been on a Middle distance running squad and trained next too the sprinters/saw what they did.
did this answer your question? you asked a very open ended question so I gave an answer I feel answered what you asked, but if you want more or different information let me know and I’ll try to help out.