Optimizing sleep to maximize performance: implications and recommendations for elite athletes.



Evidence of disturbed sleep and mood state in well-trained athletes during short-term intensified training with and without a high carbohydrate nutritional intervention


Melatonin for Treatment of Sleep Disorders: Summary


  • Evidence suggests that melatonin is not effective in treating most primary sleep disorders with short‐term use, although there is some evidence to suggest that melatonin is effective in treating delayed sleep phase syndrome with short‐term use.
  • Evidence suggests that melatonin is not effective in treating most secondary sleep disorders with short‐term use.
  • No evidence suggests that melatonin is effective in alleviating the sleep disturbance aspect of jet lag and shiftwork disorder.
  • Evidence suggests that melatonin is safe with short‐term use.
  • Evidence suggests that exogenous melatonin has a short half‐life and it penetrates the blood‐brain‐barrier.
  • Evidence suggests a link between endogenous melatonin and the sleep cycle.
  • Evidence suggests a link between endogenous melatonin and the temperature rhythm.

Sub-optimal sleep may activate depressive genes, increase risk for major depression


A study of 1,788 adult twins is the first to demonstrate a gene by environment interaction between self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Results suggest that sleep durations outside the normal range increase the genetic risk for depressive symptoms. Among twins with a normal sleep duration of seven to 8.9 hours per night, the total heritability of depressive symptoms was 27 percent. However, the genetic influence on depressive symptoms increased to 53 percent among twins with a short sleep duration of five hours per night and 49 percent among those who reported sleeping 10 hours per night.

« We were surprised that the heritability of depressive symptoms in twins with very short sleep was nearly twice the heritability in twins sleeping normal amounts of time, » said principal investigator Dr. Nathaniel Watson, associate professor of neurology and co-director of the University of Washington Medicine Sleep Center in Seattle, Wash. « Both short and excessively long sleep durations appear to activate genes related to depressive symptoms, » added Watson, who also serves on the board of directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

Sleep patterns, diet quality and energy balance.


In summary, multiple connections exist between sleep patterns, eating behavior and energy balance. Sleep should not be overlooked in obesity research and should be included as part of the lifestyle package that traditionally has focused on diet and physical activity.

The nature and prevalence of injury during CrossFit training

The amount of human sleep contributes to the maintenance of fat-free body mass at times of decreased energy intake. Lack of sufficient sleep may compromise the efficacy of typical dietary interventions for weight loss and related metabolic risk reduction.